Introducing Plonky2 - Aliens: AI Crypto News & Markets Updates












Introducing Plonky2

Polygon Blog

Mon, Jan 10, 2022


Aliens TLDR

Polygon Zero’s mission is simple: to use zero-knowledge proofs to scale Ethereum to a billion users, without compromising decentralization or security.

Plonky2 is a recursive SNARK that is 100x faster than existing alternatives and natively compatible with Ethereum.

It combines PLONK and FRI for the best of STARKs, with fast proofs and no trusted setup, and the best of SNARKs, with support for recursion and low verification cost on Ethereum.

Next, we can take these transaction proofs and recursively aggregate them by generating a layer of recursive proofs, with each one verifying two transaction proofs.

When we started Mir (now Polygon Zero) in 2019, it took two minutes on a fast computer to generate a single recursive proof.

2020 brought recursive proofs to Ethereum with 60 second proving times, and the invention of Halo delivered faster recursive proofs, but without Ethereum compatibility.

In 2021, we had an audacious goal: sub-1 second recursive proofs on Ethereum.

Fractal, the only existing implementation of recursive FRI, took about 10 minutes to generate a proof.

A recursive proof on Plonky2 takes just 170 milliseconds on a Macbook Pro, a 100x improvement over existing alternatives.

Proof Sizes Plonky2 also allows us to speed up proving times for proofs that don’t involve recursion.

With FRI, you can either have fast proofs that are big (so they’re more expensive to verify on Ethereum), or you can have slow proofs that are small.

Constructions that use FRI, like the STARKs that Starkware uses in their ZK-rollups, have to choose; they can’t have maximally fast proving times and proof sizes that are small enough to reasonably verify on Ethereum.

When these proofs are recursively aggregated, we’re left with a single proof that can be verified in a small circuit.

We can shrink our proof sizes down to 45kb with only 20s of proving time (not a big deal since we only generate when we submit to Ethereum), dramatically reducing costs relative to Starkware.

We’ve estimated that the gas cost to verify a plonky2 size-optimized proof on Ethereum will be approximately 1 million gas.

If CALLDATA is repriced in EIP-4488, the verification cost of a plonky2 proof will drop to between 170-200k gas, which could make it not only the fastest proving system, but also the cheapest to verify on Ethereum.

[...] Polygon Zero’s mission is simple: to use zero-knowledge proofs to scale Ethereum to a billion users, without compromising decentralization or security.

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